By W. Gosling (auth.)
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Additional resources for A First Course in Applied Electronics: An Introduction to Microelectronic Systems
Consider the output equivalent circuit of the amplifier in Norton form. If no load resistance is connected to the output terminals the (open-circuit) output voltage is V2 = gm Vt R 2 Suppose now that the output resistance R2 is replaced by an output impedance Z2. Ifthe magnitude of Z2 falls with frequency, then so will V2 , which is the behaviour observed in real amplifiers. What kind of network has the property that the magnitude of its impedance falls with frequency? The impedance of a capacitor falls with increasing frequency but does so for all frequencies down to zero.
F. Similarly the existence of a small stray capacitance between the input terminal of the amplifier and some conductor on 52 53 UNWANTED OUTPUTS which there is an appreciable alternating potential will result in the flow of a small unwanted alternating current into the amplifier input terminal. These effects are sometimes called stray pickup, and can be avoided by the use of screening. A metal shield placed orthogonally to the direction of the magnetic flux lines between the source of flux and the input circuit of the amplifier will have eddy currents induced in it in such a sense as to reduce the alternating flux near the input of the amplifier.
Equivalent noise generators have properties which, although logical, seem a little odd at first sight. This is because the noise output is completely random in phase, frequency, and instantaneous amplitude. Thus iftwo noise generators are connected in series their outputs do not simply add. Both will generate currents through the load independently and in a completely uncorrelated way. Thus the power in the load due to each generator is entirely independent of the other. s. 2 Two independent noise sources feed a single load.
A First Course in Applied Electronics: An Introduction to Microelectronic Systems by W. Gosling (auth.)